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URI permanente para esta coleçãohttps://locus.ufv.br/handle/123456789/11744

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    Tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.) silage as a replacement for Tifton 85 hay to feed lactating cows
    (Brazilian Journal of Animal Science, 2017-09-01) Avila, André Sanches de; Zambom, Maximiliane Alavarse; Faccenda, Andressa; Eckstein, Everline Inês; Anschau, Fernando André; Garcias, Jessica; Schneider, Cibele Regina; Fornari, Josias Luis
    The objective of the study was to evaluate the replacement of Tifton 85 hay (TH) for Tifton 85 silage (TS) in the diets of lactating cows. Five Holstein cows in middle of lactation were allocated in a 5 × 5 Latin square design and each experimental period lasted 18 days (12 days for adaptation and six days for collection). Treatments consisted of replacement of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of TH for TS. The intake and digestion of nutrients, microbial protein synthesis, milk yield and composition, and the economic viability of the diets were evaluated. The intakes of dry matter, organic matter, and ether extract had a positive linear effect and the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber decreased linearly with increasing participation of TS. Milk production and composition and microbial protein synthesis were not affected. Regarding economic viability, the treatment with 100% hay produced better results, with better gross margin. The Tifton 85 silage can be used as a replacement for Tifton 85 hay up to 100% without changing the milk production and composition of Holstein cows.
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    New approaches, development, and improvement of methodologies for the assessment of B-vitamin requirements in dairy cows
    (Brazilian Journal of Animal Science, 2017-07-01) Girard, Christiane L.
    Studies on B-vitamin requirements of cattle, conducted more than 60 years ago, concluded that mature ruminants do not require B-vitamin supplements because the amounts of vitamins provided by the diet and synthesized by the ruminal microflora were sufficient to prevent emergence of deficiency symptoms. As a result, the impact of subclinical deficiency on maintenance of normal and efficient metabolism has been disregarded and very little research effort has been devoted at defining dairy cow requirements for B vitamins. However, emergence of deficiency symptoms is the last stage of the deficiency; deficiency appears as soon as the supply is inferior to the needs, leading to a loss of metabolic efficiency. As B vitamins play critical roles in carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism, it is likely that the demand for these cofactors increases with milk yield. Reports over the last two decades of beneficial effects of B-vitamin supplementation, such as thiamin, niacin, biotin, folic acid, and vitamin B12, suggested that, under some conditions, the need for B vitamins exceeds the supply from the diet and the synthesis by rumen microbes, leading to sub-optimal milk production and metabolic efficiency. However, responses to B-vitamin supplementation are highly variable. The major challenge faced by studies on B-vitamin requirements of dairy cows is the very limited knowledge on dietary factors driving the fate of B vitamins in rumen. This knowledge is essential to identify the conditions under which the dairy cow could benefit from B-vitamin supplements. The present review aims to describe the present state of knowledge on B-vitamin requirements of dairy cows as well as some of the major problems that need to be overcome to progress in this research field.
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    Substitution of blood plasma with soy protein concentrate in piglet diet
    (Brazilian Journal of Animal Science, 2017-04-01) Resende, Moisés Queiroz; Mascarenhas, Alessandra Gimenez; Mello, Heloisa Helena de Carvalho; Arnhold, Emmanuel; Teixeira, Karla Andrade; Rufino, Luciana Moura; Nunes, Romão da Cunha
    In this study, we evaluated the effects of substitution of partial and total spray-dried blood plasma (BP) with soy protein concentrate (SPC) in the diet of post-weaning piglets on their performance, intestinal histomorphometry, and blood parameters. Fifty-four castrated male piglets, weaned at an average age of 21 days and an initial average weight of 7.01±0.294 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized block design, with three diets (0%SPC-5%BP, 2.5%SPC-2.5%BP, and 5%SPC-0%BP), six replicates, and three piglets per experimental unit. The experimental feeds were formulated to meet the requirements of the piglets at 21-32 and 33-42 days of age (pre-starter diet) and 43-66 days of age (starter diet). From 21 to 32 and 21 to 42 days of age, daily feed intake, daily weight gain, and final weight of the animals were higher in the group fed 2.5%SPC-2.5%BP and 0%SPC-5%BP. From 21 to 66 days of age, daily weight gain and daily feed intake were higher in the animals fed 2.5%SPC-2.5%BP. No effect was observed on the histomorphometry variables. The total leukocyte count was higher in animals fed 2.5%SPC-2.5%BP and 5%SPC-0%BP and the lymphocyte count was lower in the piglets that received 0%SPC-5%BP. The combined use of soy protein concentrate and spray-dried blood plasma in the feeds of piglets between 21 and 42 days of age improves their productive performance.
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    Sheep meat commercialization in the retail market in Brazilian cities
    (Brazilian Journal of Animal Science, 2018-01-01) Firetti, Ricardo; Alberti, Ana Lúcia Luz; Zundt, Marilice; Santos, Aline de Oliveira; Rego, Fabiola Cristine de Almeida; Astolphi, José Luis de Lima
    This paper explored the mix market characteristics of sheep meat as a product for sale in different cities in the states of São Paulo and Paraná. For this, 81 products were purchased in 21 outlets sampled in a “non-probabilistic” manner for convenience and then subjected to analysis of yield of meat, bone, and fat. Imported products represented 20% of the total, being marketed in hypermarkets. It was observed that 37% of the total products were obtained in hypermarkets, 31% in supermarkets, 23% in butcher shops, and 8.6% in meat outlets. Almost 9% of the products had not undergone the official slaughter inspection system. The main types of products identified were palettes and legs with bones (33.3 and 24.7%, respectively); however, only 25% were satisfactorily displayed to consumers. The yields obtained in meat and deboned portions were 74% and 59% of the total weight, significantly affecting the average adjusted sales prices of the products, respectively US$13.01/kg sale price; US$17.82/kg deboned; and US$22.52/kg lean meat. The low yield of clean and boned meat observed in the samples can lead to negative experiences of these products by consumers.
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    Effect of the dietary level of cull pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) on ruminal fermentation, kinetics, and digestibility of hair lambs
    (Brazilian Journal of Animal Science, 2017-05-01) Castillo Rangel, Francisco; Villalobos Villalobos, Guillermo; Domínguez Díaz, David; Ortega Gutiérrez, Juan Ángel
    The objective was to evaluate the effect of three levels of cull pinto beans (CPB; Phaseolus vulgaris) on ruminal fermentation, kinetics, and nutrient digestibility in hair lambs. Six cannulated lambs averaging 56.6±3.8 kg were used and were randomly assigned to one of three treatments. Treatments were: 0.0 kg kg–1 of CPB in the supplement (control); 0.25 kg kg–1 of CPB in the supplement (CB25); and 0.40 kg kg–1 of CPB in the supplement (CB40). Dry matter intake, ruminal pH, NH3 , and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, methane production, Kp (passage rate), MRT (mean retention time), and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber were evaluated. Data were analyzed in a Latin square design, repeated in line, by MIXED procedure of SAS. Estimates used for Kp and MRT were obtained by a non-linear regression model (PROC NLIN). Dry matter intake was reduced by supplementation of CPB. No differences were found in ruminal pH or ruminal NH3. During the trial, differences were found for ruminal VFA concentration (mM), which were greater for the CB25 group. The propionate:acetate ratio was greater for the CB40 treatment. Methane production (mM/m) differed among treatments, but it was the greatest for the CB40 group. Passage rate (kg kg–1/h) and MRT (h) were similar among treatments and the digestibility (kg kg–1) of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber was not different among treatments. The inclusion of 0.25 kg kg–1 of CPB in the diet of hair lambs allows for appropriate nutrient digestion without affecting Kp and MRT and increases the molar proportion of the ability of VFA to maintain acetate:propionate ratio without increasing methane production.
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    Biochemical and seminal parameters of lambs fed palm kernel cake under grazing system
    (Brazilian Journal of Animal Science, 2017-08-01) Mugabe, Lopes César; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina; Barbosa, Larissa Pires; Araújo, Fabiana Lana de; Oliveira, Bruna Yasnaia de Souza; Silva, Rosani Valéria Marcelina Matoso; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Pinheiro, Emmanuel Emydio Gomes
    This study aimed to assess the effects of palm kernel cake on semen quality and biochemical parameters of Santa Inês lambs. A total of 40 animals with 24.10±2.72 kg body weight and five months old were assigned in a completely randomized design into four groups and 10 replicates. The animals were subjected to four levels of palm kernel cake (0, 15, 30, and 45%) based on dry matter. The trial lasted 90 days foregone by 15 days for adaptation. Blood samples were collected every 45 days from jugular vein using vacuum tubes without anticoagulant. Total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and very-low-density lipoprotein were assessed. Once the animals reached puberty at a mean age of 225 days, the semen samples were collected by electroejaculator once a week for three sequence weeks and assessed for volume, color, aspect, wave motion, motility, sperm concentration, sperm vigor, total of spermatozoa per ejaculate, viable spermatozoa per mL, and sperm morphology. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and followed by regression analysis. Non-parametric data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein were linearly increased. There was no difference for low-density lipoprotein. Diets did not affect mass motility, sperm motility, vigor, total spermatozoa per ejaculate, viability sperm per mL, and minor and total sperm defects. Sperm concentration increased linearly. Negative quadratic effects were observed for major sperm defects. Supplementation of diets with palm kernel cake up to 45% on dry matter enhance biochemical parameters and do not impair the qualitative variables of lamb sperm.
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    Proportions of sugarcane and babassu mesocarp bran in diets for feedlot cattle
    (Brazilian Journal of Animal Science, 2017-08-01) Augusto, Wescley Faccini; Ribeiro, Glauco Mora; Restle, João; Missio, Regis Luis; Neiva, José Neuman Miranda; Miotto, Fabrícia Rocha Chaves; Rocha, Higor Patrick Sousa Lopes
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production performance of feedlot cattle fed diets containing chopped sugarcane ratios (580 or 380 g/kg of diet dry matter) as roughage and levels of inclusion of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB; 420 to 620 g/kg of concentrate dry matter). Twenty-four young Nellore bulls with 321±23 kg initial body weight, at 22 months of age, were used in a completely randomized experimental design with treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and six replicates. Dry matter intake (21.71 g/kg of body weight), average daily gain (1.46 kg/day), and cold carcass weight (232.59 kg) were not changed by proportion of sugarcane or BMB level. The proportions of sugarcane and BMB levels did not change the apparent digestibility of the diets, except the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, which was lower in the diet associating the lowest levels of sugarcane and BMB. Increasing proportions of sugarcane reduced subcutaneous fat thickness from 2.89 to 1.91 mm. Carcass commercial primal cuts were not affected by variation factors. Inclusion of babassu mesocarp bran enables the use of larger proportions of sugarcane as a result of the increased digestibility of the fiber fraction of feedlot cattle diets without changing the performance and main carcass traits of these animals.
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    Effects of Lactobacillus buchneri inoculation or 1-propanol supplementation to corn silage on the performance of lactating Holstein cows
    (Brazilian Journal of Animal Science, 2017-07-01) Silva, Janielen da; Winckler, João Pedro Pereira; Pasetti, Maximiliano Henrique de Oliveira; Salvo, Pedro Augusto Ribeiro; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Daniel, João Luiz Pratti; Nussio, Luiz Gustavo
    The objective was to evaluate the effects of corn silage supplemented with 1-propanol or inoculated with L. buchneri on the ruminal fermentation profile, digestibility, and production traits of lactating Holstein cows. Whole-corn plants were harvested at 350 g/kg dry matter (DM) and packed in nine bag silos (13 t/silo). At ensiling, two treatments were applied: control (no additive; six silos) and L. buchneri inoculation with 1 × 105 cfu/g (three silos). Feeding started after 247 days of storage; one L. buchneri and two control silos were opened in each experimental period. Twenty-one multiparous Holstein cows (~33 kg/day of milk) were allocated to seven balanced 3 × 3 Latin squares with 21-day periods (14 days of adaptation). The experimental diets contained (DM basis): 80 g/kg cottonseed, 95 g/kg citrus pulp, 180 g/kg soybean meal, 90 g/kg corn grain (ground), 25 g/kg minerals and vitamins premix, and 530 g/kg of corn silage. Source of corn silage was the only difference between experimental treatments: control, L. buchneri, or control silage supplemented with 1-propanol (10 g/kg of diet DM). The 1-propanol was dissolved in water (1:1) and sprinkled onto the ration during mixing, immediately before each feeding. Dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, and composition were not affected by treatments. Cows fed 1-propanol had greater concentrations of 1-propanol in the rumen fluid, higher concentration of glucose, and lower concentration of non-esterified fatty acids in blood plasma. Corn silage inoculated with L. buchneri at 1 × 105 cfu/g does not affect silage fermentation, ruminal fermentation profile, or milk production. Supplementation of 1-propanol at 10 g/kg affects the ruminal fermentation profile without affecting feed intake and milk production of mid-lactating dairy cows.
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    In vitro fermentation characteristics of ruminant diets using ethanol extract of brown propolis as a nutritional additive
    (Brazilian Journal of Animal Science, 2017-07-01) Gomes, Maria de Fátima Falcão; Ítavo, Camila Celeste Brandão Ferreira; Ítavo, Luís Carlos Vinhas; Leal, Cássia Rejane Brito; Silva, Jonilson Araújo da; Heimbach, Natália da Silva; Leal, Eduardo Souza
    The addition of levels of ethanol extract of brown propolis was evaluated by assessing diet degradation in rumen fluid and predicting cumulative in vitro gas production by nonlinear (dual pool logistic and exponential) models. A total of 35 g of crude propolis were extracted in 65 mL of cereal alcohol (95% ethanol). In a completely randomized factorial design, the experimental diets combined four concentrations of extracted propolis diluted in cereal alcohol (0, 50, 70, and 100% of propolis extract) and supplementation doses (4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mL/kg dry matter), tested in triplicate. Diet (400 g/kg Tifton hay and 600 g/kg concentrate) was incubated for 96 h carried out three times in three different weeks. There was significant interaction between extract concentration and dose on the dry matter (DM) degradability. Dry matter degradability of diet decreased exponentially as a function of the increase in dose (y = 678.55×dose–0.271). Pure alcohol treatment showed a negative exponential effect, with degradability of 303.61 g/kg when administered at a dose of 20 mL/kg DM. Treatment 100% ethanol extract reached the greatest degradability, estimated at 18.93 mL/kg DM. The treatment with 70% extract showed 6.35 mL/kg DM and the 50% extract, 7.65 mL/kg DM of minimum degradability. The reduction potential of pure ethanol was –0.32 mL gas/mL. Estimates of maximum gas production by dual pool logistic and exponential models were 13.10 mL and 12.07 mL for 100% extract, respectively. The 100% extract produced the highest gas production estimates, above 30 mL gas/100 mg DM of fermented diet. The degradation and fermentation of ruminant diet can be improved using 13 mL/DM kg of ethanol extract of propolis.
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    Effect of dietary amino acid composition from proteins alternative to fishmeal on the growth of juveniles of the common snook, Centropomus undecimalis
    (Brazilian Journal of Animal Science, 2017-07-01) Silvão, Cristiane Freire; Nunes, Alberto Jorge Pinto
    This study investigated the effect of dietary amino acid composition from proteins alternative to fishmeal on the growth performance of the common snook, Centropomus undecimalis. Fish of 10.79±0.71 g (n = 150) were stocked in 15 shaded outdoor tanks of 1 m3 . The basal diet contained 643.4 g kg−1 salmon byproduct meal (SML) and 200.0 g kg−1 soy protein concentrate (SPC). Two other diets replaced 39 and 29% of the SML with poultry byproduct meal (PBM, 170.1 g kg−1) and SPC (334.9 g kg−1), respectively. Fish were fed twice daily for 84 days under 32±1 g L−1 water salinity and 27.3±0.9 °C temperature. Final survival (99.5±2.6%) was unaffected by dietary treatment. Snook grew slower (0.24±0.03 and 0.27±0.04 vs 0.35±0.06 g day−1) and achieved the lowest body weight (31.1±6.62 and 33.3±10.20 vs 40.4±13.18 g) and the highest feed conversion ratio (3.69±0.29 and 3.11±0.51 vs 2.33±0.34) when fed SPC and basal diets compared with PBM, respectively. Retention of dietary crude protein varied from 36 to 38% for fish fed the basal and SPC diets, but exceeded 51% in fish fed PBM. Results indicate a greater ability of the common snook to gain weight and increase retention of nutrients when dietary protein is of terrestrial animal origin. Dietary protein from PBM yields a more balanced dietary amino acid composition relative to fish muscle, but possibly in excess of the species requirements.