# Biologia Geral

URI permanente desta comunidadehttps://locus.ufv.br/handle/123456789/11835

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31 resultados

## Resultados da Pesquisa

Item Seleção recorrente recíproca na obtenção de híbridos interpopulacionais de milho-pipoca(Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 2008-12) Faria, Vinícius Ribeiro; Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Sobreira, Fábio Moreira; Silva, Admilson Costa eO objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da seleção recorrente recíproca em produzir híbridos de milho-pipoca (Zea mays) de progênies endógamas superiores, com famílias de irmãos-completos. O programa de seleção recorrente recíproca envolveu as populações de milho-pipoca 'Viçosa' e 'Beija-Flor'. Os testes dos híbridos S0xS0 e S1xS1 foram conduzidos em delineamento látice, nos anos agrícolas de 2002/2003 e 2004/2005. Os dois ensaios incluíram testemunhas comerciais comuns, que permitiram a comparação do desempenho dos híbridos. Analisaram-se a produtividade e a capacidade de expansão. Foram preditos ganhos direto e indireto com a seleção em capacidadede expansão, avaliada em pipoqueira de ar quente e na pipocadora "Metric Weight Volume Tester". Os ganhos observados foram calculados para avaliar a eficiência da seleção recorrente recíproca. As análises de covariância mostraram variabilidade genotípica nas populações. Em relação às testemunhas comerciais, os híbridos S0xS0 foram inferiores em qualidade e equivalentes em produtividade, e os híbridos S1xS1 foram equivalentes nas duas características. O ganho observado na capacidade de expansão foi substancial, cerca de 4 mL g-1, superior ao ganho predito (2,8 mL g-1). A redução observada na produtividade não foi relevante. Verificou-se redução na variabilidade genotípica quanto à capacidade de expansão. O método de seleção recorrente recíproca foi eficiente em produzir híbridos S1xS1 superiores aos S0xS0.Item The parametric restrictions of the Griffing diallel analysis model: combining ability analysis(Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2000-12) Viana, José Marcelo SorianoIt was studied the parametric restrictions of the diallel analysis model of Griffing, method 2 (parents and F1 generations) and model 1 (fixed), in order to address the questions: i) does the statistical model need to be restricted? ii) do the restrictions satisfy the genetic parameter values? and iii) do they make the analysis and interpretation easier? Objectively, these questions can be answered as: i) yes, ii) not all of them, and iii) the analysis is easier, but the interpretation is the same as in the model with restrictions that satisfy the parameter values. The main conclusions were that: the statistical models for combining ability analysis are necessarily restricted; in the Griffing model (method 2, model 1), the restrictions relative to the specific combining ability (SCA) effects, and for all j, do not satisfy the parametric values, and the same inferences should be established from the analyses using the model with restrictions that satisfy the parametric values of SCA effects and that suggested by Griffing. A consequence of the restrictions of the Griffing model is to allow the definition of formulas for estimating the effects, their variances and the variances of contrasts of effects, as well as for calculating orthogonal sums of squares.Item The parametric restrictions of the Gardner and Eberhart diallel analysis model: heterosis analysis(Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2000-12) Viana, José Marcelo SorianoThe parametric restrictions of the diallel analysis model of Gardner and Eberhart (analysis II) were studied in order to address the following questions: i) does the statistical model really have to be restricted? ii) Do the restrictions satisfy the genetic parameter values? iii) Do the restrictions make analysis and interpretation easier? Objectively, the answers to these questions are: i) no, ii) not all, and iii) they facilitate the analysis, but the interpretation is the same as for the unrestricted model. The main conclusion was that the restrictions of the Gardner and Eberhart model related to specific heterosis effects, for all j, do not satisfy the parametric values. The Gardner and Eberhart's estimators of the variety heterosis effects, the specific heterosis effects and their variances, differ from those of the unrestricted model. Any analysis using the unrestricted model and that of Gardner and Eberhart should lead to the same inferences, at least for those based on assessment of the population effects expressed as deviations from the average value, the heteroses, the average heterosis and the variety heteroses (the correlation between the estimates of the two models is 1). The limiting factor for the use of the unrestricted model is the lack of formulas for computing the sums of squares and for estimating the estimable function variances.Item Theory and analysis of partial diallel crosses(Genetics and Molecular Biology, 1999-12) Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Cruz, Cosme Damião; Cardoso, Antonio AméricoThis study presents theory and analysis of partial diallel crosses based on Hayman's methods. This genetic design consists of crosses among two parental groups. It should be used when there are two groups of parents, for example, dent and flint maize inbred lines, and the breeder is not interested in the assessment of crosses between parents of the same group. Analyses are carried out using data from the parents and their F1 hybrids allowing a detailed characterization of the polygenic systems under study and the choice of parents for hybridization. Diallel analysis allows the estimation of genetic and non-genetic components of variation and genetic parameters and to assess the following: genetic variability in each group; genotypic differences between parents of distinct groups; if a parent has a common or a rare genotype in the group to which it does not belong; if there is dominance; if dominant genes increase or decrease trait expression (direction of dominance); average degree of dominance in each group; the relative importance of mean effects of genes and dominance in determining a trait; if, in each group, the allelic genes have the same frequency; if genes are equally frequent in the two groups; the group with the greatest frequency of favorable genes; the group in which dominant genes are most frequent; the relative number of dominant and recessive genes in each parent; if a parent has a common or a rare genotype in the group to which it belongs, and the genotypic differences between parents of the same group. An example with common bean varieties is considered.Item Quantitative genetics theory for non-inbred populations in linkage disequilibrium(Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2004) Viana, José Marcelo SorianoAlthough linkage disequilibrium, epistasis and inbreeding are common phenomena in genetic systems that control quantitative traits, theory development and analysis are very complex, especially when they are considered together. The objective of this study is to offer additional quantitative genetics theory to define and analyze, in relation to non-inbred cross-pollinating populations, components of genotypic variance, heritabilities and predicted gains, assuming linkage disequilibrium and absence of epistasis. The genotypic variance and its components, additive and due to dominance genetic variances, are invariant over the generations only in regard to completely linked genes and to those in equilibrium. When the population is structured in half-sib families, the additive variance in the parents’ generation and the genotypic variance in the population can be estimated. When the population is structured in full-sib families, none of the components of genotypic variance can be estimated. The narrow sense heritability at plant level can be estimated from the parent-offspring or mid parent-offspring regression. When there is dominance, the narrow sense heritability estimate in the in F2 is biased due to linkage disequilibrium when estimated by the Warner method, but not when estimated by means of the plant F2-family F3 regression. The bias is proportional to the number of pairs of linked genes, without independent assortment, and to the degree of dominance, and tends to be positive when genes in the coupling phase predominate or negative and of higher value when genes in the repulsion phase predominate. Linkage disequilibrium is also cause of bias in estimates of the narrow sense heritabilities at full-sib family mean and at plant within half-sib and full-sib families levels. Generally, the magnitude of the bias is proportional to the number of pairs of genes in disequilibrium and to the frequency of recombining gametes.Item Components of variation of polygenic systems with digenic epistasis(Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2000-12) Viana, José Marcelo SorianoIn this paper an extension of the biometric model of Mather and Jinks for the analysis of variation with digenic epistasis is presented. Epistatic effects can contribute favorably to the determination of the genotypic values of selected individuals or families and of superior hybrids. Selection will be inefficient, however, if there is a large number of interacting genes because the epistatic components of the between-family and within-family genotypic variances are very high compared to the portion attributable to the average effects of genes. Selection tends to be efficient when the number of interacting genes is reduced, but this depends on the magnitude of due to dominance and environmental variances. The dominance component (H) and the epistatic component due to interactions between homozygous and heterozygous genic combinations (J) can only be estimated when one or more quadratic statistics from the S3 generation, obtained by randomly mating F2 individuals, are used.Item Breeding strategies for recurrent selection of maize(Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 2007-10) Viana, José Marcelo SorianoThe objectives of this work were to analyze theoretical genetic gains of maize due to recurrent selection among full-sib and half-sib families, obtained by Design I, Full-Sib Design and Half-Sib Design, and genotypic variability and gene loss with long term selection. The designs were evaluated by simulation, based on average estimated gains after ten selection cycles. The simulation process was based on seven gene systems with ten genes (with distinct degrees of dominance), three population classes (with different gene frequencies), under three environmental conditions (heritability values), and four selection strategies. Each combination was repeated ten times, amounting to 25, 200 simulations. Full-sib selection is generally more efficient than half-sib selection, mainly with favorable dominant genes. The use of full-sib families derived by Design I is generally more efficient than using progenies obtained by Full-Sib Design. Using Design I with 50 males and 200 females (effective size of 160) did not result in improved populations with minimum genotypic variability. In the populations with lower effective size (160 and 400) the loss of favorable genes was restricted to recessive genes with reduced frequencies.Item Biometrical analyses of linolenic acid content of soybean seeds(Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2003) Gesteira, Abelmon da Silva; Schuster, Ivan; José, Inês Chamel; Piovesan, Newton Deniz; Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Barros, Everaldo Gonçalves de; Moreira, Maurilio AlvesThe genetic reduction of linolenic acid levels increases the quality and stability of soybean oil. The objective of this study was to determine the inheritance and evaluate the nature and magnitude of gene effects on soybean seed linolenic acid level. Means and variances of F1, F2, and F3 generations were made from the cross between accession BARC-12 (low linolenic acid content) and the commercial Brazilian cultivar CAC-1 (normal linolenic acid content). The results demonstrated that linolenic acid content in soybean is under the genetic control of a small number of genes. The additive model explained the means for the three generations and for the parents. Non-allelic gene interactions had little effect on the determination of genotypic values for the individuals. The generation means and population variation analyses demonstrated that the dominance deviations contribute little to the trait. These results showed that backcross breeding programs can be used to introduce the low linolenic acid content trait into soybean seeds, since it is possible to identify with very high accuracy the desired genotypes in segregating populations.Item Analysis of variance of partial diallel tables(Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2000-03) Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Cruz, Cosme Damião; Cardoso, Antonio Américo; Regazzi, Adair JoséThe theory of variance analysis of partial diallel tables, following Hayman’s proposal of 1954, is presented. As several statistical tests yield similar inferences, the present analysis mainly proposes to assess genetic variability in two groups of parents and to study specific, varietal and mean heteroses. Testing the nullity of specific heteroses equals testing absence of dominance. Testing equality of varietal heteroses of the parents of a group is equivalent to testing the hypothesis that in the other group allelic genes have the same frequency. Rejection of the hypothesis that the mean heterosis is null indicates dominance. The information obtained complements that provided by diallel analysis involving parents and their F1 hybrids or F2 generations. An example with the common bean is included.Item Analysis of general and specific combining abilities of popcorn populations, including selfed parents(Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2003-12) Viana, José Marcelo Soriano; Matta, Frederico de PinaEstimation of general and specific combining ability effects in a diallel analysis of cross-pollinating populations, including the selfed parents, is presented in this work. The restrictions considered satisfy the parametric values of the GCA and SCA effects. The method is extended to self-pollinating populations (suitable for other species, without the selfed parents). The analysis of changes in population means due to inbreeding (sensitivity to inbreeding) also permits to assess the predominant direction of dominance deviations and the relative genetic variability in each parent population. The methodology was used to select popcorn populations for intra- and inter-population breeding programs and for hybrid production, developed at the Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Two yellow pearl grain popcorn populations were selected.